A few days ago, we heard news that was quite viral on social media regarding the video of the killing of protected rare fauna in Riau.
A video that shows the murder of a hornbill is quite attention-grabbing, but the culprit has been caught. However, the culprit said that he killed him not for other purposes, but for consumption.
Rangkong, these large birds are called strong forest farmers. Not without reason if Margaret F. Kinnaird and Timothy G. O’Brien, researchers of Rangkong and tropical forests, given that high award to birds known to have the magic to spread these seeds. With the ability to fly up to a range of 100 square kilometers, this bird can spread seeds as far as the mileage that we are unaware of, forest regeneration has been carried out by Rangkong.
The presence of Rangkong also has inseparable positive relationships with forests. Yes, the existence of Rangkong in the forest shows that the jungle must be filled with healthy trees. Because the hornbill requires a sturdy and strong tree to be used as a nest which is estimated to be 45 cm in diameter. That way, the trees with large postures must be in the forest far from logging.
Rangkong are birds that belong to the Bucerotidae family (julang, enggang, and kangkareng), which are characterized by their body size from 65 cm to 170 cm. The weight also varies, from 290 to 4,200 grams. The beak is long and light with loud, flapping wings. Rangkong are also spread in Africa, tropical Asia, as well as Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.
Especially in Indonesia, there are 13 types of Rangkong spread in the archipelago, 3 of which are endemic to Indonesia, namely 2 species in Sulawesi; julang sulawesi (Ryhticeros cassidix) and kangkareng sulawesi (Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus); and 1 species on Sumba Island, julang sumba (Ryhticeros everetti).
While other types are klihingan enggang (Anorrhinus galeritus), crested enggang (Berenicornis comatus), black-crested julang (Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus), golden julang (Rhyticeros undulatus), black kangkareng (Anthracoceros malayanus), white-belly anchor (Anthracoceros albirostris), rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), ivory hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil), board hornbill (Buceros bicornis), and papua julang (Rhyticeros plicatus).
When viewed on its distribution map, Sumatra is in the first place for the distribution of diversity of Rangkong, which are nine types followed by Kalimantan with eight species, then Wallacea of four species and Java only three types.
Yokyok Hadiprakarsa, from Indonesia’s Hornbill, said Indonesia is the owner of the largest hornbill habitat and population in Asia. All types of rangkongare protected by Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems and PP No. 7 of 1999 concerning Preservation of Plants and Animals. Hornbill also (julang sumba) is one of 25 endangered species which is prioritized to increase its population by 10 percent by 2019. “This means that the importance of rangkong in ecosystems has indeed been recognized and must be protected. In fact, the life of this hornbill goes hand in hand with human culture. Just say, hornbill reliefs in Prambanan Temple and rangkong that have a special place in the hearts of the Dayak Community as a symbol of holiness. ”
With its protected status, the life of rangkong in the wilderness should be safe without interference. However, the facts on the ground were really shocking. Especially the ivory horn which by the IUCN Red List was determined to be Critical (CR / Critically Endangered) or a step towards extinction in the wild at the end of 2015. The status of jumping from Near Threatened (NT) or approaching endangered to Critical due to rampant hunting and shrinking forests as its natural habitat.
Yokyok explained, hunting for hornbill ivory is quite widespread in the last three years. Based on an investigation conducted by Indonesian Hornbill with the Titian Foundation, in 2013 there were around six thousand adult ivory rangkong hunted for their beak in West Kalimantan. Whereas in 2015, it was recorded that 2,343 ivory rangkong were confiscated from illegal markets in Indonesia, China and America, which after tracing all the beaks originated from Indonesia. In total, from early 2012-2016, around 8,343 ivory rangkong were slaughtered with the main purpose of being smuggled into China.
“Since the 17th century, precisely in the Ming Dynasty, Chinese nobles have wanted ivory horns to be used as ornaments. The horn above this beak weighs about 13 percent of its body weight, the structure of the material is almost the same as elephant ivory. It’s solid and solid. ”
Anxiety about the future of rangkong, especially the fate of this ivory hornbill was also conveyed by Yokyok in the “National Conference of Indonesian Bird Observers and Observers II” which took place in Yogyakarta, 4-6 February 2016. According to Yokyok, the high hunting and reduction of specific trees for nesting rangkong had an impact bad for the development of rangkong. “Do we have to be proud to see Critical Ivory horny status? “Conservation efforts must indeed be done in addition to law enforcement to provide a deterrent effect for these criminals,” he explained.
Not much different, Adhi Nurul Hadi, from the Balai Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP), said that rangkong are an important component in the GLNP ecosystem, especially their role as spreading seeds of fruit tree species. Hornbill is an important factor in the designation of the Gunung Leuser area as a national park.
According to Adhi, in its development, this protected bird species is one of the most sought after wild hunters to be used as medicine or preservation. Why? Because of the high selling price. “We continue to secure hornbill populations and habitat in GLNP through socialization, patrol and law enforcement. In 2015, there were 25 forestry crime cases handled by BBTNGL with 6 cases related to the circulation and hunting of wild animals. ”
Giyanto, Wildlife Crime Specialist Unit / Wildlife Conservation Society (WCU / WCS), said that, along with technological developments, even illegal bird trade, including rangkong, joined the trend of the era. Indeed, conventional methods are still used such as meeting directly with traders and buyers at the bird market. However, what you have to watch out for now is through online. “E-commerce sites, social networks, and groups on smartphones are widely used by criminals because they are more practical, safe, and broader in scope.”
According to Giyanto, the methods by hunters to catch birds from nature also continue to be renewed. Some use firearms, use nets or glue, make cage traps, install snares, even without mercy, take saplings from their nests. “Conservation of birds, which are not only rangkong, must be done together. It must be cross-personal and agency, even across countries to deal with a network of international hunters. ”
As a true forest farmer, rangkong have played their shrewdness as seed dispersers which certainly creates ecological balance. “Instead of thanking for the incomparable services of rangkong, a handful of people actually help them for personal gain,” said Yokyok.
List of 13 types of Rangkong in Indonesia and International Conservation Status
|Indonesia Name1||Scientic Name2||English Name||IUCN3||CITES4|
|1. Enggang Jambul||Berenicornis comatus||White-crowned hornbill||NT||II|
|2. Rangkong Gading||Rhinoplax vigil||Helmeted hornbill||CR||I|
|3. Enggang Papan||Buceros bicornis||Great hornbill||NT||I|
|4. Enggang Cula||Buceros rhinoceros||Rhioceros hornbill||NT||I|
|5. Enggang Klihingan||Anorrhinus galeritus||Bushy-crested hornbill||LC||II|
|6. Kangkareng Hitam||Anthracoceros malayanus||Black hornbill||NT||II|
|7. K. Perut-putih||Anthracoceros albirostris||Oriental pied hornbill||LC||II|
|8. Julang Jambul-hitam||Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus||Wrinkled hornbill||NT||II|
|9. Kangkareng Sulawesi||Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus||Sulawesi hornbill||VU||II|
|10. Julang Sulawesi||Rhyticeros cassidix||Knobbed hornbill||VU||II|
|11. Julang Sumba||Rhyticeros everetti||Sumba hornbill||VU||II|
|12. Julang Emas||Rhyticeros undulatus||Wreathed hornbill||LC||II|
|13. Julang Irian||Rhyticeros plicatus||Papua hornbill||LC||II|